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H.A
THE JOKER
THE JOKER


Age : 27
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Registration date : 2008-11-26

Classification and related languages Empty
PostSubject: Classification and related languages   Classification and related languages EmptySun Nov 30, 2008 11:28 am

[b][size=25]
Classification and related languages[/b][/size][size=21]
The English language belongs to the western sub-branch of the [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germanic_languages][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]Germanic branch[/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21] of the [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-European_languages][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]Indo-European[/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21] family of languages. The closest living relative of English is [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scots_language][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]Scots[/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21], spoken primarily in Scotland and parts of Northern Ireland, which is viewed by linguists as either a separate language or a group of dialects of English. The next closest relative to English after Scots is [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frisian_languages][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]Frisian[/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21], spoken in the Northern Netherlands and Northwest Germany, followed by the other [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Germanic_languages][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]West Germanic languages[/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21] ([/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dutch_language][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]Dutch[/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21] and [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afrikaans][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]Afrikaans[/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21], [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low_German][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]Low German[/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21], [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_language][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]German[/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21]), and then the [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Germanic_languages][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]North Germanic languages[/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21] ([/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swedish_language][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]Swedish[/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21], [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danish_language][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]Danish[/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21], [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norwegian_language][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]Norwegian[/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21], [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Icelandic_language][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]Icelandic[/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21], and [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faroese_language][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]Faroese[/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21]). With the exception of Scots, none of these languages are mutually intelligible with English, because of divergences in [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lexis][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]lexis[/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21], [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syntax][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]syntax[/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21], [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantics][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]semantics[/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21], and [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonology][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]phonology[/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21].[[/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed][i][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]citation needed[/i][/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21]]
Lexical differences with the other Germanic languages arise predominately because of the heavy usage of Latin (for example, "exit", vs. Dutch [i]uitgang[/i]) and French ("change" vs. German [i]Änderung[/i], "movement" vs. German [i]Bewegung[/i]) words in English, although this is also true for purely Germanic words ("after" vs. German [i]nach[/i], "already" vs. German [i]schon[/i]). The syntax of German and Dutch is also significantly different from English, with different rules for setting up sentences (for example, German [i]Ich [b]habe[/b] noch nie etwas auf dem Platz [b]gesehen[/b][/i], vs. English "I [b]have[/b] still never [b]seen[/b] anything in the square"). Semantics causes a number of [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/False_friends][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]false friends[/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21] between English and its relatives. Phonology differences obscure words which actually are genetically related ("enough" vs. German [i]genug[/i]), and sometimes both semantics [i]and[/i] phonology are different (German [i]Zeit[/i], "time", is related to English "tide", but the English word has come to mean gravitational effects on the ocean by the moon).[[/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed][i][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]citation needed[/i][/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21]]
Many written [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_language][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]French[/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21] words are also intelligible to an English speaker (though pronunciations are often quite different) because English absorbed a large vocabulary from [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_language][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]Norman[/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21] and French, via [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Norman][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]Anglo-Norman[/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21] after the Norman Conquest and directly from French in subsequent centuries. As a result, a large portion of English vocabulary is derived from French, with some minor spelling differences (word endings, use of old French spellings, etc.), as well as occasional divergences in meaning of so-called false friends. The pronunciation of most French loanwords in English (with exceptions such as [i]mirage[/i] or phrases like [i]coup d’état[/i]) has become completely anglicized and follows a typically English pattern of stress.[[/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Citation_needed][i][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]citation needed[/i][/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21]] Some North Germanic words also entered English due to the Danish invasion shortly before then (see [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Danelaw][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]Danelaw[/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21]); these include words such as "sister", "sky", "window", "egg", and even "[/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/They][u][size=21][color:184f=#0000ff]they[/u][/color][/size][/url][size=21]" (and its forms) and "are" (the present plural form of "to be")

H.A[/size]
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THE JOKER
THE JOKER
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Classification and related languages Empty
PostSubject: Re: Classification and related languages   Classification and related languages EmptyMon Dec 01, 2008 8:42 am

very nice

awaiting for ur new news

fady Ghanem
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