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AuthorMessage
Mary



Female
Age : 25
Location : homs
Job/hobbies : basket ballet piano
Humor : a man without reason is a beast in season
Points : 156
Registration date : 2009-10-02

lern more about the PIANO Empty
PostSubject: lern more about the PIANO   lern more about the PIANO EmptyWed Dec 09, 2009 5:14 am

[img]https://2img.net/i/fa/i/smiles/herz.png[/img] [img]https://2img.net/i/fa/i/smiles/herz.png[/img] PIANO

[color:2c18=red][color:2c18=green]The PIANO[/color] [/color][color:2c18=indigo]is founded on earlier technological inventions. The first [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/String_instrument][color:2c18=indigo]string instruments[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo] with struck strings were the [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hammered_dulcimer][color:2c18=indigo]hammered dulcimers[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo] originating from the [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persian_traditional_music][color:2c18=indigo]Persian traditional musical[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo] instrument [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santur][color:2c18=indigo]santur[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo] During the [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_Ages][color:2c18=indigo]Middle Ages[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo], there were several attempts at creating stringed [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keyboard_instrument][color:2c18=indigo]keyboard instruments[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo] with struck strings, the earliest being the [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hurdy_gurdy][color:2c18=indigo]hurdy gurdy[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo] which has uncertain origins. By the 17th century, the mechanisms of keyboard instruments such as the [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clavichord][color:2c18=indigo]clavichord[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo] and the [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harpsichord][color:2c18=indigo]harpsichord[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo] were well known. In a clavichord the strings are struck by [url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tangent_(clavichord)]tangents[/url], while in a [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harpsichord][color:2c18=indigo]harpsichord[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo] they are plucked by quills. Centuries of work on the mechanism of the harpsichord in particular had shown the most effective ways to construct the case, soundboard, bridge, and keyboard.

The invention of the modern piano is credited to [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bartolomeo_Cristofori][color:2c18=indigo]Bartolomeo Cristofori[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo] (1655-1731) of [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Padua][color:2c18=indigo]Padua[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo], [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy][color:2c18=indigo]Italy[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo], who was employed by [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medici][color:2c18=indigo]Prince Ferdinand de Medici[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo] as the Keeper of the Instruments. He was an expert harpsichord maker and was well acquainted with the previous body of knowledge on stringed keyboard instruments. It is not known exactly when Cristofori first built a piano. An inventory made by his employers, the [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medici][color:2c18=indigo]Medici[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo] family, indicates the existence of a piano by the year 1700; another document of doubtful authenticity indicates a date of 1698.The three Cristofori pianos that survive today date from the 1720s.Cristofori's great success was in solving, without any prior example, the fundamental mechanical problem of piano design: the hammer must strike the string, but not remain in contact with it (as a tangent remains in contact with a clavichord string) because this would [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Damping][color:2c18=indigo]damp[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo] the sound. Moreover, the hammer must return to its rest position without bouncing violently, and it must be possible to repeat a note rapidly. Cristofori's piano [url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_(piano)]action[/url] served as a model for the many different approaches to piano actions that followed. While Cristofori's early instruments were made with thin strings and were much quieter than the modern piano, compared to the clavichord (the only previous keyboard instrument capable of minutely controlled dynamic nuance through the keyboard) they were considerably louder and had more sustaining power.

Cristofori's new instrument remained relatively unknown until an Italian writer, [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scipione_Maffei][color:2c18=indigo]Scipione Maffei[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo], wrote an enthusiastic article about it (1711), including a diagram of the mechanism. This article was widely distributed, and most of the next generation of piano builders started their work because of reading it. One of these builders was [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gottfried_Silbermann][color:2c18=indigo]Gottfried Silbermann[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo], better known as an [url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organ_(music)]organ[/url] builder. Silbermann's pianos were virtually direct copies of Cristofori's, with one important addition: Silbermann invented the forerunner of the modern [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Damper_pedal][color:2c18=indigo]damper pedal[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo], which lifts all the dampers from the strings at once.

Silbermann showed [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Sebastian_Bach][color:2c18=indigo]Johann Sebastian Bach[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo] one of his early instruments in the 1730s, but Bach did not like it at that time, claiming that the higher notes were too soft to allow a full dynamic range. Although this earned him some animosity from Silbermann, the criticism was apparently heeded. Bach did approve of a later instrument he saw in 1747, and even served as an agent in selling Silbermann's pianos.Piano making flourished during the late 18th century in the [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Viennese_School][color:2c18=indigo]Viennese school[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo], which included [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Andreas_Stein][color:2c18=indigo]Johann Andreas Stein[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo] (who worked in [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augsburg][color:2c18=indigo]Augsburg[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo], Germany) and the Viennese makers [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nannette_Streicher][color:2c18=indigo]Nannette Streicher[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo] (daughter of Stein) and [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anton_Walter][color:2c18=indigo]Anton Walter[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo]. Viennese-style pianos were built with wood frames, two strings per note, and had leather-covered hammers. Some of these Viennese pianos had the opposite coloring of modern-day pianos; the natural keys were black and the accidental keys white.It was for such instruments that [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolfgang_Amadeus_Mozart][color:2c18=indigo]Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo] composed his [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piano_concerto][color:2c18=indigo]concertos[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo] and [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piano_sonata][color:2c18=indigo]sonatas[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo], and replicas of them are built today for use in [/color][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Authentic_performance][color:2c18=indigo]authentic-instrument performance[/color][/url][color:2c18=indigo] of his music. The pianos of Mozart's day had a softer, clearer tone than today's pianos or English pianos, with less sustaining power. The term [i][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fortepiano]fortepiano[/url][/i] is nowadays often used to distinguish the 18th-century instrument from later pianos.[font:2c18='Times New Roman']The modern piano (the pianoforte) was developed from the harpsichord around 1720, by Bartolomeo Cristofori of Padua, Italy. His new instrument had a delicate pianissimo (very soft sound), a strong fortissimo (a very loud, forceful sound), and every level in between. The first upright piano was made around 1780 by Johann Schmidt of Salzburg, Austria. Thomas Loud of London developed an upright piano whose strings ran diagonally (in 1802), saving even more space[/font][/color]
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